EEG-based authentication studies

Use of EEG signals for authentication purposes is a current trend in BCI research area. Table shows summarization of various studies related to EEG-based authentication.

Author(s)ChannelsNo. of subjectsTaskExtracted FeaturesClassifierAccuracy (%)
Ruiz-Blondet et al.350visual stimulation of 400 imagesEvent-Related Petentials (ERP)normalized cross- correlation100
La Rocca et al.64108relaxation with opened eyes and closed eyesPower Spectral Density (PSD), Spectral Coherence (COH)Mahalanobis distance- based classifier and match-score fusion100
Chen et al.1629Rapid Serial Visual Rep- resentation (RSVP)point-biserial correlation coefficients, Fisher’s transformationLinear Discriminant Anal- ysis (LDA)100
Palaniappan665 tasks: relaxation, math activity, geometric figure rotation, mental letter composition, visual countingsAuto-regressive coefficients (AR), Spectral Power (SP), Inter-Hemispheric Power Difference (IHPD), Inter- Hemispheric Linear Complexity (IHLC)LDA100
Ashby et al.1454 tasks: relaxation, limb movement, visual counting, geometric figure rotationAR, SP, IHPD, IHLC, PSDSupport Vector Machine (SVM)100
Chuang et al.1157 tasks: breathing, simulated finger movement, sport activity, singing/passage recitation, audio listing, color identification, and pass- thoughtCosine similarity of the vector repre- sentationk-Nearest Neighbour (k- NN)99
Palaniappan et al.6120drawings of common ob- jects as visual stimulationmultiple signal classification (MUSIC)k-NN, Elman Neural Net- work (ENN)98
Riera et al.4-relaxationAR, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), mu- tual information, coherence, cross cor- relation (EEG and ECG data)Fisher Discriminant Anal- ysis (FDA)98
Jayarathne et al.1412imagining four digit num- ber as cognitive taskCommon Spatial Patterns (CSP)LDA97
Riera et al.251relaxation with closed eyesHiguchi fractal dimension, entropy, skewness, standard deviation, ARLDA97
Liew et al.810apprehension of images as visual stimulationcoherence, cross-correlation, mean amplitudeFuzzy-Rough Nearest Neighbour (FRNN)92
Yeom et al.1810apprehension of images of faces including self-face as visual stimulationdifference of average signals, positive/negative peaks at specific latenciesnon-linear SVM classifier86.1
Poulos et al.24relaxation with closed eyesspectral featuresLearning Vector Quantiza- tion (LVQ)100
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